Flying With Your Cello

Flying with string instruments can be a stressful experience. With the number of horror stories clogging our news feeds in recent years detailing airline mishaps, it’s no wonder we get nervous taking our instruments with us when we fly.

However, things are beginning to look up; under the new Department of Transportation (DOT) ruling that went into effect March 6, 2015, airlines are now required to allow small instruments in the cabin as part of a passenger’s carry-on allowance. Just like any other luggage, as long as it can fit in the overhead compartment or under the seat the airline cannot refuse to carry the instrument. This ruling is a huge victory for musicians, in particular string players, everywhere.

But what about cellos?

While the DOT ruling is very clear in regard to smaller instruments, it is not as definitive when it comes to larger ones. With cellos, standard practice is one of two things: use a flight case and gate check the instrument or purchase another seat in the cabin. Both options have their benefits and disadvantages, so it is up to you to decide what you are most comfortable with.


Putting Your Cello in Checked Baggage

Airport

  1. Make sure you have a sturdy flight case or cover you can use. Covers normally go around a hard case, while dedicated flight cases are heavy-duty and designed to protect the instrument without additional parts. They can be purchased or rented depending on the type you are looking for. Just as you would a package, mark it clearly as FRAGILE, MUSICAL INSTRUMENT, or any other polite message that states it needs to be treated with care.
  2. Make sure your instrument is padded within the case. Use wadded tissue paper, cloth, or old clothes to support the bridge, fingerboard, and tailpiece as well as around the sides of the instrument to prevent any jostling around inside the case. If you are concerned about the tension, tune your strings down by a half step to a third. The safest option, if possible, is to have a luthier take down the entire setup and have another set it back up when you arrive at your destination.
  3. Understand that others will be handling your instrument and plan accordingly. There is a lot of baggage to handle and things are not always treated as delicately as they should be–we’ve all watched luggage being loaded onto a plane. It is also possible that the case may be opened, and non-players do not always know how to safely put everything back. Emphasize nicely that it is a delicate musical instrument, but make sure steps 1 and 2 are in place as well.

Bringing Your Cello Into the Cabin

Plane Interior

  1. When buying your extra ticket (which should always be done), make sure you are not buying a seat where the cello will block any emergency exits or signs. Airlines can make a case to have the instrument checked if it threatens passenger safety, so check sites like Seat Guru to maximize both your comfort and the safety of your cello.
  2. Contact the airline when you buy the ticket to make sure everything follows their safety policies. This will ensure you are in compliance and allow you to confirm you provided advance notice about the cello.
  3. Some cellists have been able to fit their instruments in the overhead compartments of larger planes. This is something that cannot be guaranteed, but if you are thinking of trying it there are a few things to keep in mind:
    • Board early. If you need to pay extra to do so, it may be worth it to ensure that you have enough space to get your instrument in the overhead first. Like the DOT ruling says, if it fits in the overhead compartment and you put it there first, your instrument is entitled to stay there.
    • Some cases work better than others. Most anecdotal evidence of cello cases fitting in these compartments happened with the Accord cases, specifically the Hybrid and the UltraLight.
  4. THE AIRLINE MAY NOT CHARGE YOU MORE THAN THE COST OF THE SEAT FOR THE INSTRUMENT. To quote directly from the final ruling: “…assuming all of the safety requirements are met, carriers cannot charge the passenger more than the price of a ticket for the additional seat….” This doesn’t mean that if you decide to upgrade your seat your cello gets a free bump. It also doesn’t mean that you are exempt from fees that are normally posed on carry-on items or cargo. What it does mean is that they cannot charge you extra just because a cello is occupying the seat instead of a human being.

General Advice for Flying With a Cello

  1. Check your instrument insurance. There is a limit to an airline’s liability if your cello is lost, damaged, or delayed. In many cases this only covers a fraction of the instrument’s value. Make sure you are covered for air travel by your insurance provider.
  2. Arm yourself with information: bring a copy of the DOT ruling and your airline’s instrument policy with you. Be firm but polite if an issue arises.
  3. Make sure you have a high-quality hard case, such as the ones found in our store or on our website. If you are purchasing a seat for your instrument, make sure it’s a lighter and less bulky case such as Bam, Accord, or Galaxy. If you have a flight cover for checking your cello, make sure the case will fit inside the cover.
  4. Check in as early as possible. It may take longer to do so and get through security because of the instrument. Make sure to leave yourself enough time so that you are not running for the gate. If you comfortable doing so, paying for early boarding will also give you a space advantage when getting your instrument situated in the cabin.

Hopefully with these tips in mind, both you and your cello will have a safe flight. Be sure to visit the DOT webpage for more information about traveling with instruments.


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The Bach Cello Suites: A Brief History

Written between 1717-1723 and popularized by Pablo Casals in the 1930s and by Yo-Yo Ma in more recent years, the Bach cello suites have become standard in many repertoires. 

Origins of the Bach Cello Suites

A suite (pronounced “sweet”) is a collection of dance pieces. Though not standardized at first, a German composer and keyboard player named Johann Froberger (1616-1667) ended up forming what is known today as the classical suite style. It consisted of allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigueKing Louis XIV (1638-1715), an accomplished dancer, was also heavily influential in the development of the suite. He was the patron for many composers who wrote many dance suites on his behalf, including Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) and François Couperin (1668-1733). He even founded the Académie Royale de Danse, Europe’s first school dedicated to dance.

Bach and the Classical Style Suite

Johann Sebastian Bach

When you look at the number of suites in Bach’s catalog, it is soon apparent that he was at least familiar with the French dance styles.  However, when you take a closer look at his dance music, you can see that he not only knew how many measures a piece needed to be (and their respective time signatures), but he also had intimate knowledge of the physical dance steps for each piece based on the meter, and which beats in the measure were emphasized. Not bad for someone who spent his life living in Germany!

The cello suites themselves more or less follow the form established by Froberger, except that each one begins with a Prelude and there is either a minuet, a bourrée, or a gavotte in between the sarabande and gigue. While each suite has its own unique character, arguably the most noteworthy one is Suite no. 6 in D Major, BWV 1012.  This was written originally for a five-string violoncello piccolo (strung C-G-D-A-E). With the higher E string at his disposal, Bach took advantage of that higher range. Since modern cellos do not have the higher E, this suite requires players to go into higher positions while navigating Bach’s highly technical passages.

Sheet Music for the Bach Cello Suites

Because of their popularity, there are numerous editions of the six suites available in our catalog. You can find versions ranging from the high-quality Bärenreiter and Henle edition, to the more affordable Carl Fischer editionInternational Music Company also has an edition that includes scans of Bach’s autograph manuscript. In addition to cello, we have versions for viola and bass as well.

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Copyright © 2021 · All Rights Reserved

Famous Pedagogues of the String Instrument World

It’s back-to-school time!   Whether students are in the building or learning remotely this school year, teachers are working hard to make sure their students are getting the best education they can offer.  This blog post celebrates some of the most famous pedagogues in the string instrument world throughout history and their influence on today’s music students.

Rodolphe Kreutzer (1766-1831)

Kreutzer was born in Versaille, France on November 16, 1766.  He studied violin with his father, then with Anton Stamitz (1750-c. 1809) and Giovanni Battista Viotti (1755-1824).  He met Beethoven in 1798 on a European tour.  Without Kreutzer’s knowledge, Beethoven dedicated his Sonata in A Major, opus 47 to him.  Kreutzer himself composed 19 violin concertos and 40 operas.  He passed away in Geneva, Switzerland on January 6, 1831.

As a teacher, he was one of the founding violin professors at the Conservatoire de Paris, and taught there from 1795-1826.  A famous pedagogue that co-wrote the violin curriculum for the conservatory, he is considered one of the founders of the French violin school.  His method book, the 42 Studies or Caprices (ca. 1796) is still a popular method book used by many violin students. It has been transcribed for viola and cello

Lillian Fuchs (1901-1995)

Fuchs was born in New York City on November 18, 1901 to a musical family – her brothers Joseph and Harry played the violin and cello.  Her music education began by studying violin with her father and later with Franz Kneisel at the Institute of Musical Art (now the Julliard School).  Fuchs began her career on violin in 1926, but quickly shifted to viola.  She became a highly respected string player, performing with chamber groups and as soloist with major orchestras like the New York Philharmonic,  and passed away on October 5, 1995.

Fuchs also had an exceptional career teaching at some of the most renowned music schools around the country, including the Manhattan School of Music and Julliard.  Among her most notable students is Isaac Stern.  During her teaching career, she composed two method books for viola:  16 Fantasy Études and 15 Characteristic Studies.

David Popper (1843-1913)

Popper was born in Prague, Bohemia on June 16, 1843.  He studied under cellist Julius Goltermann (1825-1876) at the Prague Conservatory.  Conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow recommended Popper to become Chamber Virtuoso for the court of Prince Constantin (1801-1869). He composed works for cello, including four concertos, a Requiem for three cellos and orchestra, and a number of pieces for cello and piano.  He passed away on August 7, 1913 near Vienna.

At the Conservatory at Budapest, he taught many cellists who would go on to have successful careers, including Adolf Schiffer, who was János Starker teacher.  In addition to his compositions, Popper wrote a collection of études called High School of Cello Playing.

Franz Simandl (1840-1912)

Simandl started his career by studying double bass at the Prague Conservatory with Josef Hrabe (1816-1870).  After his studies, he became the principal bassist in the Vienna Court Opera Orchestra.  He was professor of double bass studies at the Vienna Conservatory from 1869-1910.

As a pedagogue, Simandl was extraordinarily influential in double bass studies.  He wrote his method book, New Method for the Double Bass, during his tenure at the Vienna Conservatory.  Simandl said the purpose of the book was to provide the first complete double bass method that is not only thorough, but also easily accessible[1]

Special thanks to Yoonhee Lee, John Guarino, Phil Rush, and Robert Mayes of Carriage House Violins for their assistance.


[1] Franz Simandl, New Method for the Double Bass (New York: Carl Fischer, Inc., 1904), 3.

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Copyright © 2020 · All Rights Reserved · Stephen Loikith

Women Composers You Should Know About: Part Three

This Women’s History Month, we honor women of the past and present and acknowledge not only their accomplishments but also their struggles and hard work to attain sometimes the barest recognition from society.
The vast sheet music collection of Johnson String Instrument includes music by countless other past and present women composers, all available for purchase.

Photo by Javier Oddo

ANNA CLYNE (b. March 9, 1980) is an English composer currently residing in the United States, specializing in electroacoustic music. She has received numerous awards, and her double concerto Prince of Clouds was nominated for a Grammy in 2015. Many of her works involve a visual component, such as her orchestral poem Night Ferry. Her work The Violin is a suite for two violins and electronic backing track, with optional violin ensemble. It is paired with poems by her mother and a series of stop-motion animations by Josh Dorman. Rest These Hands is a movement from the suite arranged for solo violin and strings.

LILI BOULANGER (August 21, 1893 – March 15, 1918) was a French composer known for her colorful vocal, choral, and orchestral works, influenced by Debussy. Taught with her sister Nadia by Gabriel Fauré, she made it her mission to win the coveted Prix de Rome.  After years of study, she won it in 1913 with her cantata Faust et Hélène, becoming the first woman to have ever won the prize. She composed two somber violin pieces around this time: Nocturne (1911) and Cortège (1914). However, throughout her entire career, Lili struggled with what is thought to have been Crohn’s disease. She died in poor health at just 24 in 1918. Her sister Nadia then turned to pedagogy, teaching composers such as Copland, Glass, Bacewicz, and Piazzolla.

CLARA SCHUMANN (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) remains one of the most esteemed musicians and composers of the Romantic Era. She had a 61-year long career as a concert pianist, touring with Joseph Joachim and championing the works of her husband Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, and Felix Mendelssohn. She composed a piano concerto at age 14 and premiered it herself under the baton of Mendelssohn. Superb later works include her masterful Piano Trio (1846) and the popular Three Romances (1853) for violin and piano, inspired by her husband and dedicated to Joachim. Robert was committed to an asylum soon afterward, dying there in 1856. After his death, Clara focused on performing, and with Brahms edited her husband’s works for publication.

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Copyright © 2019 · All Rights Reserved · Nate Faro